Distribution of Risk Factors and Mode of Delivery in Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Covid-19

Deo Apringga Ayu Nanta, Puspita Deasy Rahmadiany, Wasis Nupikso, Andoharman Damanik, Fitria Nur Hasanah


In the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 widely spread from Wuhan City of China causing a global pandemic. Pregnant women are a group that is prone to suffer from this disease due to their physiology and immune response changes. In the early stages of pregnancy, COVID-19 infection has the potential to affect organ growth and fetal development. Risk factors, such as late pregnancy, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease have been found to cause more severe manifestation and can increase the risk of premature birth to abortion.  There is also a risk for vertical transmission which further endanger the postnatal outcome. The purpose of this study is to figure out the depiction of distribution of risk factors and mode of delivery in pregnant and postpartum women to better understand the major health problem that commonly found and which mode physicians preferred for safe delivery. This study uses an analytical descriptive approach with cross-sectional design in a period of April 2020 to September 2021 in Regional General Hospital Sidoarjo.. 231 respondents were selected with total sampling of the population and are based on the positive result of antigen swab and/or RT-PCR COVID-19 test and risk factor categories which has been determined. The obtained data then statistically analyzed using The IBM SPSS Statistics and described in a table. The result of this study showed that the majority of respondents are not in the risk category yet certain conditions are commonly found and C-section is preferred for delivery.


COVID-19; Pregnancy; Risk Factors; Delivery Routes; Late Pregnancy; Hypertension

Full Text:



Agostinis, C., Mangogna, A., Balduit, A., Aghamajidi, A., Ricci, G., Kishore, U., & Bulla, R. (2021). COVID-19, Pre-eclampsia and Complement System. Frontiers in Immunology, 4744. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.775168

Ciapponi, A., Bardach, A., Comandé, D., Berrueta, M., Argento, F. J., Rodriguez Cairoli, F., Zamora, N., Santa María, V., Xiong, X., & Zaraa, S. (2021). COVID-19 and Pregnancy: An Umbrella Review of Clinical Presentation, Vertical Transmission, and Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes. PloS One, 16(6), e0253974. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253974

Conde-Agudelo, A., & Romero, R. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 Infection during Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.07.009

Di Mascio, D., Khalil, A., Saccone, G., Rizzo, G., Buca, D., Liberati, M., Vecchiet, J., Nappi, L., Scambia, G., & Berghella, V. (2020). Outcome of coronavirus spectrum infections (SARS, MERS, COVID-19) during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM, 2(2), 100107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100107

Farghaly, S., & Makboul, M. (2021). Correlation between Age, Sex, and Severity of Coronavirus Disease-19 Based on Chest Computed Tomography Severity Scoring System. Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, 52(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43055-021-00408-1

Juan, J., Gil, M. M., Rong, Z., Zhang, Y., Yang, H., & Poon, L. C. (2020). Effect of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19) on Maternal, Perinatal and Neonatal Outcome: Systematic Review. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 56(1), 15–27. https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.22088

Kurniawati, E. M., Hardianto, G., Paraton, H., Azinar, A. D., Hadi, T. H. S., & Rahmawati, N. A. (2021). Trends in Delivery Mode Occurring during the Covid-19 Pandemic and Risks in Long-Term Urogynecology Cases: A Narrative Review. Majalah Obstetri & Ginekologi, 29(3), 136–140. https://doi.org/10.20473/mog.V29I32021.136-140

Oakes, M. C., Kernberg, A. S., Carter, E. B., Foeller, M. E., Palanisamy, A., Raghuraman, N., & Kelly, J. C. (2021). Pregnancy as a Risk Factor for Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 Using Standardized Clinical Criteria. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM, 3(3), 100319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100319

Papageorghiou, A. T., Deruelle, P., Gunier, R. B., Rauch, S., García-May, P. K., Mhatre, M., Usman, M. A., Abd-Elsalam, S., Etuk, S., & Simmons, L. E. (2021). Preeclampsia and COVID-19: Results from the INTERCOVID Prospective Longitudinal Study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 225(3), 289-e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.05.014

Prawirohardjo, S. (2011). Ilmu Kandungan. PT Bina Pustaka Sarwono Prawirohardjo.

Sarastry, R., Layarta, C., Aladini, U., & Pramono, B. A. (2021). Delivery Routes in Pregnancy with Covid-19 and the Risk of Intrapartum Vertical Transmission: A Meta-Analysis. Medical Journal of Indonesia, 30(2), 116–122. https://doi.org/10.13181/mji.oa.214779

Sathiya, R., Rajendran, J., & Sumathi, S. (2022). COVID-19 and Preeclampsia: Overlapping Features in Pregnancy. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.5041/RMMJ.10464

Vouga, M., Favre, G., Martinez-Perez, O., Pomar, L., Acebal, L. F., Abascal-Saiz, A., Hernandez, M. R. V., Hcini, N., Lambert, V., & Carles, G. (2021). Maternal Outcomes and Risk Factors for COVID-19 Severity among Pregnant Women. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92357-y

Wastnedge, E. A. N., Reynolds, R. M., Van Boeckel, S. R., Stock, S. J., Denison, F. C., Maybin, J. A., & Critchley, H. O. D. (2021). Pregnancy and COVID-19. Physiological Reviews, 101(1), 303–318. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00024.2020

Yuki, K., Fujiogi, M., & Koutsogiannaki, S. (2020). COVID-19 Pathophysiology: A Review. Clinical Immunology, 215, 108427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108427

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30742/jikw.v12i1.2461


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Deo Apringga Ayu Nanta, Puspita Deasy Rahmadiany, Wasis Nupikso, Andoharman Damanik, Fitria Nur Hasanah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Ilmiah Kedokteran Wijaya Kusuma is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License